Why Determinism?


The eternal debate between determinism and free will has lately taken a new form. Determinism has been reincarnated in the shape of neuroscience, with attendant metaphors of computers, chemistry, machines, and Darwinism. Meanwhile, defenders of free will seem to have run out of arguments, particularly since, if they wish to be taken seriously, they dare not resort to a religious argument. That the debate is virtually eternal suggests that it is not finally resolvable; it could be said in fact that the two sides are arguing about different things, even though they often use the same terminology.

Determinism’s popularity is most clearly suggested by the sales figures for books on the subject and by the dominance of the view in popular science writing. Such books are widely reviewed, while those arguing for free will are neglected, especially by the mainstream press.

The question then is not whether or not we have free will, or whether or not we are wholly determined in all our thoughts and actions; but rather, why at this point in time, particularly in this country, determinism is so popular, more so than free will?

Today’s determinism is not the same as the ancient concept of fate. Fatalism was not so much about determinism or, as the Calvinists posited, predestination; fatalism did not pretend to know what would happen, but rather held that fate was a matter of unpredictability, of whim (on the part of the universe or of the gods, etc.), and in fact left some room for free will, in a what-will-be-will-be sort of way; i.e., because outcomes were unpredictable, one had to choose, one had to act, and let the dice fall where they may. The tragic flaw of hubris was exactly what is wrong with any determinism, the delusion that one could stop the wheel of fate from turning past its apex, i.e., that through prediction one could control.

Determinists worship predictability and control. I once read somewhere the idea that, if everything that has already happened were known, everything that will happen could be accurately predicted. Extreme as this statement is, it accurately summarizes the mindset of the determinists. It also suggests why determinism is so attractive in a scientific age such as ours, for science is not only about the gathering of facts and the formulation of theories but also about using those theories to make predictions.

Given the apparent power of science to accurately predict, and given that prediction is predicated on a deterministic stance, it is not surprising that scientists should turn their attention to the human condition, nor that scientists, being what they are, tend to look for, and find, evidence that human thoughts and behavior are determined by genes, neurons, modules, adaptations, what have you, and are therefore predictable. And it further is not surprising that, in a restless and rapidly changing world, laymen are attracted to these ideas. Certainty is an antidote to powerlessness.

If we are religiously minded, we find certainty in religion; hence the rise of politically and socially powerful fundamentalist movements today. If we are not religious, we may find certainty in New Age nostrums, ideologies, art, bottom lines, celebrity worship, or even skepticism (no one is more certain of his or her own wisdom than the skeptic). If we are politicians, we look for certainty and security in megabytes of data. If we are scientifically minded, we find certainty in science. But certainty is not science. It is a common psychological need in an age of uncertainty.

In satisfying this need for certainty, determinism often leads to excessive self-confidence and egotism—which in turn leads to simplifications and dismissal of complexity, ambivalence, and randomness. Determinism is teleology. Today’s determinists may have discarded God, but they still believe that He does not play dice. They are, in short, utopians. We all know where utopias end up. That much at least we can confidently predict.

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Comments

  • Justin Caouette  On July 3, 2013 at 11:52 AM

    Nice post!

    I don’t think hard determinists can have their cake and eat it too. I don’t think the concept of right and wrong can logically survive if determinism were true.

    That said, for those of us who think people perform right and wrong actions we should reject hard determinism.

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